April 19, 2021
CJCCN Editorial Team
Explicit recall related to mechanical ventilation: An evolutionary concept analysis
By Mylène Suzie Michaud, PHD(C), MScN, RN, and Marilou Gagnon, PHD, RN
Mechanical ventilation combined with sedation is widely used in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, this intervention is not without consequence on the patient. ICU patients can, in fact, remember perceptions that occurred during their mechanical ventilation—a phenomenon known as explicit recall. This phenomenon is not well defined, and no common terminology exists in the medical and nursing literature, where a variety of concepts are used interchangeably to describe the same experience. The goal of this concept analysis was to address the conceptual vagueness that surrounds explicit recall. Using Rodgers’ evolutionary approach, a total of 68 articles were analyzed to identify the concept’s antecedents, attributes, and consequences. The findings revealed that the explicit recall concept is perceptive, interpretative, subjective, dynamic, and temporal. It occurs following treatment that requires general anesthesia or sedation. It is also shaped by the modalities of anesthesia and sedation, as well as individual characteristics. Consequences of explicit recall can include anxiety, flashbacks, and post-traumatic stress disorder.